Since outdoor rearing of wild silkworms predisposes the larvae to the vagaries of climatic conditions and makes them more vulnerable not only to pests and diseases, but also to the effects of temperature, photoperiodism, precipitation, etc., developing an artificial diet on which to raise A. assamensis indoors is of great value. But the survival percent of A. assamensis was higher on medium leaves, a fact that may be due to the greater concentration of defense metabolites found in tender and medium leaves, both of which have high fitness and high probability of attack. When given a choice between L. polyantha and Z. jujuba, ALL, UNI, ANT, and MAX larvae opted for L. polyantha, and the percent of larvae opting for L. polyantha was 100 in each case (p < 0.001). PAL activity was significantly higher in medium leaves of P. bombycina and L. polyantha compared to other leaves. Nees and L. citrata Blume, and the (1994) categorized preference to Machilus (= Persea) on the basis of dodecanal and carryo-phyllene, Neog et al. In order to understand the contribution of olfactory receptors in food preference behavior of A. assamensis larvae, ablation of all other chemosensory organs, leaving either the maxillary palp or antenna only, was done before subjecting the larvae to food and odor choice tests. F Please check for further notifications by email. A Almas Unique and native to the North Eastern region of India, particularly in the Assam province, the muga silkworm, Antheraea assamensis, Heifer (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) is an economically important insect. Mean percent consumption per minute and percentage of choosing larvae in the dual food choice test. Induction of feeding preference in larvae of patch butterfly, Acta Zoologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae, How caterpillar-damaged plants protect themselves by attracting parasitic wasp, Plant Volatiles Influence Electrophysiological and Behavioral Respons-es of. In lepidopteran larvae, the antennae and maxillary palpi are known to contain about 80% of all the chemoreceptor cells (De Boer 2006). β-sitosterol, myrcetin, 7, 2′, 4′ trimethoxy dihydroxy flavone, caryophyllene, decyl aldehyde, dodecyl aldehyde, azaindole and gallic acid, which were found to exhibit attraction, biting behavior or deterrent effects were sprayed three times on the leaves of some plants grown on cement tubs under a shed house covered with nylon nets. When the larvae were reared on tender leaves, survival percent of early instar larvae (1–2 instars) was above 80% for all the host plants and 50–70% during 3rd and 4th instars. Williams Studies on the influence of host plants and effect of chemical stimulants on the feeding behavior in the muga silkworm, Chemosensory selectivity of output neurons innervating an identified, sexually isomorphic olfactory glomerulus, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, Fictive chewing activity in motor neurons and interneurons of the su-boesophageal ganglion of, A peripheral input of thoracic origin inhibits chewing movements in the larvae of, Induc-tion of orientational and feeding preferences in, Induc-tion of orientation and feeding preferences in, Sensory aspects of host plant discrimination by lepi-dopterous larvae, An inventory of taste in caterpillars: Each species its own key, Acta Zoologica Academiae scien-tiarum hungaricae, What makes a cater-pillar eat? Create a new folder below. M From the Methanolic extracts of P. bombycina leaves, six phenolic compounds were isolated through thin layer chromatography and were identified by comparing them to their standard counterparts. Source of these cocoons are domesticated farm stocks that crash frequently and/or wild insect populations that provide new cultures. C An insect approaches its host plant for feeding, oviposition, or shelter ini-tially, most likely through perception of volatile chemicals. 2002; Shiraiwa 2008; Riffel et al. The newly hatched larvae, after taking several bites of the eggshells, crawl upwards in search of leaves, where they continue feeding until the leaf stock becomes exhausted. Several other diet formulations were prepared with the addition of the chemicals showing positive responses in the previous experiments, singly or in combination as shown in Table 1. Lei Therefore, all tests of significance were carried out taking UNI larvae as the control group. 2000). B: Scheme of leaf disk arrangement for food choice tests. AK Bullas-Appleton The disease occurs throughout the year and makes maximum foliar damages during rainy seasons. LA 1981, Miller and Strickler 1984, Harris and Rose 1990, Renwick 1990, Rewick and Chew 1994, Huang and Renwick 1995, Landolt and Molina 1996, Carter and Feeny 1999, Carter et al. Please note that a BioOne web account does not automatically grant access to full-text content. K Significant variation was observed in the settling percent, i.e., the behavior of the larvae towards leaves of different maturity levels and different host plants. The mean percent consumption per minute with respect to both the choices was significant (p < 0.05) (Figure 3). The seasonal occurrence of Aphis craccivora in P. bombycina fields in Cooch Behar, West Bengal, India, during 2005-07. K The total number of mature larvae that survived out of total larvae brushed during the early stage (1st and 2nd instar), middle stage (3rd and 4th instar) and mature stage (5th instar) was recorded and statistically analyzed. The larvae spent more than five days in their 1st instar phase and eight days in the 2nd instar phase. The authors are grateful to the Department of Science and Technology, New Delhi, India, and UGC, India, for a financial grant. The silkworms were mostly attracted to the medium leaves of P. bombycina, but for all other host plants, tender leaves attracted the most silkworms. In the first stages of selection, smell and sight are the most important senses because they normally operate at long distances. A control was run in which phenylalanine was H A. assamensis is polyphagous, and out of about 15 plant species reported to be host plants, two species, Persea bombycina King ex. Plant considered as control A The mean percent consumption per minute was higher in UNI and ALL larvae in the case of consumption of host plant against the con-sumption of water (p < 0.05). The mean percent consumption per minute was higher in the case of non-hosts (p < 0.05). Smith 2Department of Biotechnology, North East Institute of Science and Technology, Jorhat, Assam;India. After recovery, the lar-vae were allowed to feed normally on leaves of their primary host plant. Jorgensen The sensory codes underlying feeding behaviour, Multimodal Chemosensory Integration through the Maxillary Palp in, Olfactory capabili-ties of the gustatory chemoreceptors of the tobacco hornworm larvae, Pore structures in in-sect olfactory sensilla: a review of data and concepts, International Journal of Insect Morphology And Embryology. Leaf disks were prepared by soaking a whatman fibre disc (GF/A, 14 mm in diameter) in water extracts of the leaves of the plants considered or only with water. Oct., 2017-Sept., 2020. LM Similarly, each of them were also com-petent in rejecting the non-host, as the NONE larvae failed to differentiate between host and non-host. Three pairs of Petri dishes for each of the host plants or standard chemicals were taken and wax coated. In the case of A. assamensis, although β-sitosterol's effect on biting behavior is greatly reduced, the compound's effects become pronounced when it is combined with phenolics. M JAA (1962) classified citral, linalyl acetate, linalool and terpenyl acetate as attractants; sugars, sitosterol, isoquercetin and morin as biting factors; and cellulose, silicate and phosphate as swallowing factors. Loon Very few studies have been carried out so far re-garding the feeding behavior of A. assamensis with respect to the influence of host plant chemical content. MF PC The muga silkworm, Anthereae assamensis Helfer feeds on a wide range of The total phenol content in the leaf samples was estimated by the method described by Malick and Singh (1980). The modifications were as follows: (1) in the test container, bamboo sticks were used for holding the fiber disks in place of a pin, and (2) the percent of larvae making a choice was calculated instead of choice index. Maximum survival and cocoon crop production in B. mori was achieved by feeding tender leaves to young larvae (1st -2nd instars), medium leaves to 3rd and 4th instars, and mature leaves to 5th instar larvae (Veda et al. Hazarika (1994) categorized Machilus (=Persea) bombycina idiotypes into most preferred, moderately preferred and least preferred types and suggested that dodecanal and caryophyllene, present dominantly in the most preferred idiotypes, may play the role of olfactory attractants, enhancing the feeding rate of muga silkworms on these plants. The number of larvae settled on the leaves of the different . Morin and quercetin did not produce as significant a response for muga silkworms. JA The flavonoids, myrcetin and 7, 2′, 4′ trimethoxy dihydroxy flavone showed higher concentration in tender and medium leaves while others showed higher levels in mature leaves. 1969, Hamamura et al. . Similar to L. grandifolia, in the food choice test for the non-host, Z. jujuba, the antennae and maxillary palp were individually compe-tent in the rejection of the non-host, and in their absence the NONE larvae could not dif-ferentiate the non-host from the host and wa-ter. Ahmed Translations are not retained in our system. Larvae were given a choice between host, P. bombycina, and non-host, L. grandifolia. Search for other works by this author on: Induced responses to her-bivory and increased plant performance, The International Society for Wild Silkmoths. Although the emerging larvae have no choice but to feed on the plant/tree on which its mother had laid eggs, as otherwise the chances of its sur-vival are very limited, olfactory organs might also play a strong role in the insect’s food-source-directed movement. TA Glendinning This result might indicate that a complement of organs may be involved in food-acceptance decisions and biting and chewing activities (Boer and Hanson 1975) because only ALL and UNI larvae contained the full complement of the sensory organs in-volved in olfaction and gustation. Hook and Litsea monopetela Persoon, are regarded as its primary host plants. In their study on the Lauraceae specialist insects Papilio troilus and P. palamedes, Lederhouse et al. Your comment will be reviewed and published at the journal's discretion. A. assamensis is multivoltine (five to six broods per year) and semi-domesticated in nature. M P 2004) (Figure 1A). One hundred grams of fresh P. bombycina leaves were crushed in the presence of methanol HCl. The receptor neurons in other gustatory sensilla might contribute to lowering or enhancing the total excitatory input provided by odorant molecules. Fermaud larvae retaining none of the chemosensory organs, Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. Volume 20, Issue 6, November 2020 (In Progress), About the Entomological Society of America, Receive exclusive offers and updates from Oxford Academic, Copyright © 2020 Entomological Society of America. Disease-free eggs were determined by examining fe-males during oviposition for the presence of pebrine spores, and eggs produced by females that were free of pebrine spores were consid-ered to be disease-free. Nees and Litsea citrata Blume, are considered to be secondary host plants. can influence in the interaction. The homogenate was centrifuged at 12,000 G for 20 minutes and the supernatant was used as a crude enzyme source. Mus-tapatra The host plants were maintained in the experimental field of CMER&TI and the silkworms were reared in the experimental field in outdoor conditions following standard procedures (Chakravorty et al. 2001, Percy et al. When the larva had eaten about 50% of the area of one of the two plant species (A or B), the test was stopped. Understanding basic physiology of Antheraea assamensis (Muga Silkworm) ... different host plant, etc.) The au-thors are also grateful to the three anonymous reviewers for their valuable comments for im-proving the quality of the work. The maxillary palp not only contains olfactory sense organs, but also gus-tatory sense organs. 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